The German chancellor, Angela Merkel, says allegations that a German man worked as a double agent for US intelligence are serious.
"If the reports are correct it would be a serious case," Merkel told a news conference in Beijing, standing next to the Chinese premier, Li Keqiang.
"If the allegations are true, it would be for me a clear contradiction as to what I consider to be trusting cooperation between agencies and partners."
The case risks further straining ties with Washington, which have been sorely tested by revelations last year of large-scale snooping on Germany by the US National Security Agency.
The White House and State Department have so far declined to comment on the arrest of a 31-year-old employee of Germany's BND foreign intelligence agency.
According to intelligence and political sources, the man admits passing documents to a US contact.
Those include information about a parliamentary committee looking into allegations by the former US intelligence contractor Edward Snowden about US surveillance in Germany, including monitoring Merkel's phone.
As Merkel visited China, a German intelligence chief warned that some firms in China faced a growing threat from industrial espionage by Chinese government agencies with huge resources.
"Germany is against [industrial espionage] –regardless of where it comes from," Merkel said. "We have a duty as the state to protect our economy... We are for the protection of intellectual property."
China's premier repeated his government's denial that it was involved in such activities.
"China and Germany, it can be said, are both victims of hacking attacks. The Chinese government resolutely opposes hacking attacks as well as the use of the internet to steal commercial secrets or intellectual property," Li said.
"China will engage in dialogue and consultation to protect the security of the internet."